Or what do thoughts have in common in virtue of which they are thoughts? The study design is summarized in Exhibit I. McGregor Theory X and Theory Y. West Virginia University, Division of Business and Economics. To do this, we shall place the major emphasis on the contrast between the high-performing units the Akron plant and Stockton laboratory , but we shall also compare each of these with its less effective mate the Hartford plant and Carmel laboratory respectively. And this is really the essence of managing upwards X theory managers - focus and get agreement on the results and deadlines - if you consistently deliver, you'll increasingly be given more leeway on how you go about the tasks, which amounts to more freedom. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. Do you recognize the practical explanation of do you have more suggestions? The most important skill of an organizational leader is to be able to motivate people, contrary to the assumption leadership is synonymous with telling people what to do in an authoritative fashion.
The manager who believes that people are inherently lazy and untrustworthy will treat employees in a manner that reflects these attitudes. They may assume responsibility, but will do so for personal profit alone. This theory leads to a conclusion of authoritarian management where employees need to be actively directed in their tasks and require significant supervision. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Theory X will sooner be implemented in industrial organizations where activities revolve around a high degree of productivity. How an organization acts and reacts internally can have much to do with how that organization is then able to act externally Morgan, 2007.
Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www1. Participatory decision-making is the rule. Likewise, Bobic and Davis 2003 state that self-actualization is not a pragmatic motivational factor due to the rare opportunity provided by corporations in reality. The first is traits leadership, which holds that characteristics of the individual can be used to determine whether or not that person would be an effective leader. The test is a simple reflective tool, not a scientifically validated instrument; it's a learning aid and broad indicator. Since feelings of competence are thus reinforced by successful performance, they can be a more consistent and reliable motivator than salary and benefits.
Management of Organization Behavior, Utilizing Human Resource. Journal of Behavioural Studies in Business. There is no universal theory; hence, in order to improve the effectiveness of management, organizations should utilize distinct management principles flexibly in specific working circumstance. Managing information in the public sector. When things go wrong, examine all the factors and take appropriate actions with a positive attitude and an encouraging tone. It takes measures and creates programs to help foster this happiness and well-being.
It is generally assumed that such curves are convex to the origin. McGregor observed that mangers generally fall into one of two categories when it came to employee motivation: he labeled these approaches Theory X and Theory Y. Theory-Y believers based firms with empowered employees. While the conclusions of this newer approach will make sense to most experienced managers and can alleviate much of the confusion about which approach to choose, there are still two important questions unanswered: 1. However, two corporations exist that continue to be very successful, after many years of impressive financial growth, seem to break all molds, yet confirm one of the most noteworthy theories regarding what motivates employees -- intrinsic vs. The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…… Works Cited Coca-Cola Company. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce applied by managers in , , and.
Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Kopelman, R. Variation in the impact of social network characteristics on the physical functioning in elderly persons. Theory Y The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are ongoing needs that, for most people, are never completely satisfied. People ust be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment In order to get them to achieve the organizational objectives. However, the theory X assumption is exaggeratedly negative while the theory Y assumption is overly optimistic. That could cause them to lose the power they had over those organizations, and could also become an issue for them when it comes to getting what they need from the organizations with which they surround themselves.
This field has many implications for business and human resources since in can help facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Adopting this philosophy will produce self-direction towards goals without coercion or control. A Theory X manager would never allow you to work autonomously, on almost anything. This is really an approach toward management and leadership. Managers who believe employees operate in this manner are more likely to use rewards or punishments as motivation. Nurse Education Today, 33 6 , 614-619.
In fact, offering appropriate guidance to subordinates and essentially avoiding overly vigorous control stand a significant position in most companies. The test is to see if they are reasonable in their conclusions and can provide clear feedback about what needs to change. As with most managerial theory, some of this may seem a bit obvious. Theory X managers believe all actions should be traceable to the individual responsible. Cultural diversity refers to the differences of cultural backgrounds, religious beliefs, social norms, races, and other dimensions among individuals. Teaching them the boundaries of the work environment as well as work ethic they may not learn otherwise.
That will be done in this file and will include how organizations can facilitate innovation…… References Gordeau, J. Conversely, Theory X is associated with decreased motivation and with the relative extinguishing of any sense of personal pride, joy, or genuine sense of responsibility at work and its replacement with a…… Words: 2035 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper : 77494899 Conclusion It is difficult to show which theory works best in practice, as every company has a unique environment and workforce Daft, 2004. The major disadvantage of the application of this theory is that it makes for an antagonistic, tense work environment. Situational leadership was developed by the authors in 1972, when leadership styles were far more autocratic than they are today. Management: People, Performance, Change 3rd edition. Subsequently the period from the 1980's to 2000 showed an aggressive rise in temperature. Because of these beliefs, the Theory Y manager is more likely to delegate tasks and leave employees to perform them with little oversight.
Theory Y Unlike in Theory X, starts from the assumption in Theory Y that people have different needs. Douglas McGregor Revisited: Managing the Human Side of the Enterprise. The problem of achieving a fit among task, organization, and people is something we know less about. Two of these performed the relatively certain task of manufacturing standardized containers on high-speed, automated production lines. This is rooted in the basic impulse where individual's skills and well-being are utilized for the benefit of the organization. Nothing in our data indicates that either set of assumptions was valid at Akron.