These data can be shown for large areas, such as counties or large cities, as well as for much smaller locations, such as census tracts or blocks. A source is more credible if written by someone with a degree or other credentials in the subject of interest. For liquids that are insoluble in water or immiscible with water , liquid density plays a critical role. If the person or organization in charge of the site did not write the material, they should clearly identify the original source. For lists of news sources ranging from left to right to satire, check out.
Medical facts and figures should have references such as citations of articles published in medical journals. A checklist on how to identify fake news in. The of the stimulates and supports research on dietary supplements, distributes the results of research on dietary supplements, and provides educational material on dietary supplements, including and other reliable. Did a popular press—Jones and Bartlett, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich—publish it? It is a function of molecular weight, solubility, and vapor pressure. Is the author taking too much liberty in making those assumptions? You have to move beyond the appraisal of the text and begin to analyze the content.
Please see the for specific details about residency requirements. Keep in mind that summer populations may include the same people year after year. This kind of information can be obtained during the site visit, in site documentation, and through communications with community members and state, local, and tribal officials see. Often you can learn most of what a book can tell you by reading the preface and the introduction and scanning the table of contents and index. Evaluating Research It's happened to the best of us. Local game wardens may be able to estimate the number people routinely catching fish at sites. This section describes the criteria that you, the health assessor, should use when categorizing and documenting the type of exposure pathways.
An area of concern such as a contaminant plume can also be digitally added to a map, and estimates for the specific populations needed for that area can be attained. For example, you should feel more comfortable trusting information found in The New York Times or The Washington Post — two newspapers with proven track records of journalistic integrity and public retraction of errors — than that found in a source like Infowars, which has a wide readership, but often publishes misleading or blatantly incorrect information. Once you determine the reliability, credibility, and worth of your research, then you can rest assured that you have the best information possible for your speech. Identify populations that may visit the site area. This discount cannot be combined with the Completion Scholarship for Maryland community college students or the Pennsylvania Completion Scholarship. Objectivity Is the material objective and free of advertising, bias, and hidden agendas? Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U. There are two parts of a source that you need to analyze: the text itself and the argument within the text.
These are usually written well after the events took place and often will tell you more about the period in which they were written than about the period they describe. Avoid using sources if you cannot establish a date, since the information may be old or irrelevant. Sediment may serve as an exposure point for swimmers, workers, and others coming in contact with submerged or exposed sediment. After 1992, the pathway is completed, because contamination was verified at the exposure point and all five elements are therefore present. A critical eye is warranted if an individual or company is promoting a particular medical product or service in an e-mail without providing supporting medical evidence. This type of diagram more explicitly outlines examples of some factors you should consider when analyzing the exposure pathways at your site: What media are affected? All links to external sites were verified at the time of publication.
What is the copyright on the website? It does not apply to doctoral programs. Site access and use e. Is there a link to a page describing the goals or purpose of the sponsoring organization or company? Type a sentence in Google to verify. As a site-specific example, for chemicals found at elevated concentrations in soil, you might decide that migration to exposure points is unlikely for those chemicals both with a high propensity for adsorbing to soil and with a relatively short half-life for biologic degradation. The data can be shown for large areas, such as counties or large cities, as well as for much smaller locations such as census tracts or blocks. Categorizing Exposure Pathways Consider the following scenario: A solvent transfer facility first opened in the community in 1983. For example, if you find a page dealing with evolution on a K-12 educational site, it is likely the material may be too simplified for a college biology paper.
Remember, the presence of a population in the vicinity of a site does not necessarily mean exposure is occurring or has occurred. It is critical to verify the location and use of public and private wells and springs on and near the site. If workers request information on potential occupational hazards, whether chemical or physical, you should generally refer them to these agencies. At the same time, it is also possible for such actions to have taken place without being properly communicated or recorded. Or, if community members expressed concern about private wells, but they happen to be located upgradient of a site, explain why no pathway exists i. Owners of reliable Web sites usually have a policy governing which links to other sites they post.
Avoid using textbooks except for background information. The enforces consumer protection laws and regulates dietary supplement advertising. Sometimes, you may identify elevated contaminant levels, but may not be able to identify the original source of contamination. What is the likelihood that degradation of volatile organic compounds is producing measured contaminants? How can you tell the difference between a scholarly and popular article? Some medical Web sites take a conservative approach and do not provide links to any other sites; some sites provide links to any site that asks or pays for a link; and others provide links only to sites that have met certain criteria. There are several different ways in which people can come into contact with contaminated soil. When evaluating and interpreting various fate and transport information, you may need to consult technical experts e. Under what conditions does this exposure occur? If it says that they want to encourage something over something else, or anything similar; chances are, the source only shows facts that are in favor of what they want.
You may need to evaluate physical hazards for such scenarios. Does the information have a complete list of works cited, which reference credible, authoritative sources? To determine site accessibility, check the condition of the fence and the extent of physical barriers, look for evidence of trespassers, and determine whether a security system is present. For example, chemical-specific factors can help determine whether particular pesticides detected in lake sediment are likely to accumulate in fish. Can you track down the accuracy of an article? If the content is provided by an organization, you might want to consider if the organization known and respected. Scholarly writers are held to a higher standard of rigor than casual writers and even some branches of journalism. Aging, bioavailability, and overestimation of risk from environmental pollutants.