The entire book is fun to read and informative. Similarly a correlation given without a measure of reliability probable error, standard error is not to be taken very seriously. The probable error hidden behind the impressively presented figure may be so large that the editor who relies on it is grasping at a thin straw. A Synopsis of How to Lie with Statistics by Darrell Huff When most people hear or read a statistic, they quickly have to decide if the numbers listed are valid or invalid. Details zum Angebot Wählen Sie im Probemonat ein kostenloses Hörbuch Ihrer Wahl. By using a set of, say, 3 or 5 data, you can produce results that don't accurately reflect the state of affairs.
But how difficult is it for marketers to make a claim based on data to push their objectives? Μου είχε φανεί ενδιαφέρον το θέμα και χάρη στην τιμή δεν το σκέφτηκα παραπάνω. It's really written to arm people with the right questions and a healthy dose of skepticism, but inevitably ends up helping the scammers as well. Aber er ruft nicht an. The author talks about percentages in this chapter, where growth can be measured in percentages or percentage points. Chapter 9 — How to Statisticulate Statisticulate is the process of misleading people using statistics. Und das Schlimmste: Alles deutet darauf hin, dass niemand anders als James dafür verantwortlich ist. If it is not, it may be far less accurate than an intelligent guess and have nothing to recommend it but a spurious air of scientific precision.
But in the billion years since this classic came of age, we've all learned that other ways, some of them better presented. In measuring things there is usually some margin of error, either by the tool or by the conducting human testers. On the other side of that coin, let's say 10 companies are all found to use too much packaging material. Dann muss er verreisen und verspricht dir, er meldet sich auf dem Weg zum Flughafen. Before Excel statistics were presented more often with illustrations rather than bar graphs and pie charts, which would just be weird now since it's so easy to prepare graphs in Excel. It gives the readers the knowledge necessary to intelligently question and understand the story behind the numbers.
It's not that they didn't cross check the calculations or that they were deliberate in the act - far from it, they actually wanted what they predicted to happen. Then he shows you how it's wool covering your eyes. The teacher will have to create these problems though; the book doesn't provide them. And nowhere does this terror translate to blind acceptance of authority more than in the slippery world of averages, correlations, graphs, and trends. Και πόσο χαίρομαι που τελικά το αγόρασα εκείνη την ημέρα και που το διάβασα τώρα.
He was a contemporary of Kinsey and most of the refuting Kinsey's work wouldn't publish until many years later. In den kalten Wirbelstürmen des Zeitgeists braucht es Menschen, an denen wir uns festhalten können: Oliver Polak und Micky Beisenherz. Writing a book review is not to be confused with writing a summary of a book. Da bittet ihn nicht nur die Königin um seine Hilfe, sondern auch sein bester Freund. Tatsächlich zeigt sich, dass der Beschuldigte in der fraglichen Nacht nicht im Militäreinsatz war, wie stets behauptet, sondern heimlich in die Familienwohnung nach Fort Monroe zurückgekommen ist. Ihr monatliches Hörbuch können Sie immer frei aus über 200.
Graph Manipulation These three are all the same graph data wise , but very different impression wise: You have to look at the range of data being used on both axes. There are two measures for measuring error — Probable Error and Standard Error. People who research using demographic data, for example, might want to find out specifically about the types of jobs that men tend to hold, and therefore will only survey men. Five years later it was 105 million. I felt it has added another layer to my critical thinking skills and set myself apart from those who panic at daily news. When samples rely on people to tell the truth about themselves, we learn more about what they want to be than who they really are. One of the trickiest ways to misrepresent statistical data is by means of a map.
The trick here is to use data that can't be fairly compared, and treat them as though they're on equal footing. Doch sosehr sie ihn auch verabscheut - das Schicksal hat seine eigenen Pläne. In normal distributions, the three will be near each other, but in irregular distributions e. Personally, I have studied statist Noting that this book was published in 1954, one may instantly discount the information as outdated. Biased Averages There are three kinds of average: The mean: add up all the values and divide by the quantity of valuesThe mode: the most common valueThe median: the value in the middle of the sample These can be very different numbers, and reporters and others will pick the one that best supports their argument.
If your profits should climb from three percent on investment one year to six percent the next, you can make it sound quite modest by calling it a rise of three percentage points. Or, perhaps better, you could easily see that neither element could properly be singled out as the guilty one. Να που ήρθε η ώρα να το διαβάσω κιόλας. The Gee-Whiz graph: This one is something that we see quite often. This is where this book comes to the rescue. When assaying a statistic, watch out for a switch somewhere between the raw figure and the conclusion. Just by not qualifying the average the published fact can be completely twisted out of form from the real facts.
Well, it could be either mean, median, or mode… This slight nuance enables statisticians to lead us to different conclusions. That was the point at which statistical analyses became meaningful to me—I had a theory and I was looking to see whether there was any evidence for it. Really tho, my favourite thing about this book is that people today are arguing that media was some ideal thing in say, the 1950s -- and this book is, in part, a disproof of that. For many years, many studies and researches have been done in real estate market. Anyone using this book in a conventional or homeschool setting will either need to spend some time explaining the more antiquated of Huff's illustrations, or find a way to update some of his illustrations. Readers aren't likely to see the problem unless they know some backstory.