In times of complex social relations and economic and political confusion, the need for equality and opportunity arises. Hence no society ever fully conforms to either type. It meant a new social life for women. Societies that adopted these innovations grew in size and became more powerful. It sees the main role of government as the defence of property and the provision of a legal system.
Similarly, competition, rivalry, corruption and dishonesty are the other effects of industrialization. Sometimes it exerts many influences which spread out in different directions like the spokes of a wheel. Similarly, old ideas have been replaced by new ideas. Van den Berghe states that according to functional theory change may come from three main sources: 1. Arnold Toynbee also proposed a cyclical theory of human history. These theorists contend that in functionalism there is no place of change and as such it cannot explain change. It alters the primary socio-economic relationships.
Charles A Ellwood agreed with Ward that progress is promoted by education and knowledge. Ready-to-eat-cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for the form in which these same materials were consumed in yester years. The structured differentiation refers to the increasing complexity of social organisation. The sensate culture stresses those things which can be perceived directly by the senses. It is a process that binds people together in interaction. For example, both worsening of climatic conditions and the are thought to have contributed to the crisis of feudalism in 14th-century Europe. Thereafter degeneration began to take place.
The most famous and influential of the conflict theories is the one put forward by Karl Marx who along with Engel wrote in Communist Manifesto 'all history is the history of class conflict. It is therefore possible for each cycle to offer higher level of achievement. There is the presence of a strong government with a well organised military force, trade, commerce and other economic activities flourish in such societies. All the structures are closely related to each other and all the functions are interrelated and interdependent. Structural differentiation in response to problems within the system, e. Weber rejected evolutionism by arguing that the development of Western society was quite different from that of other civilizations and therefore historically unique.
Society evolves from one stage to another by means of struggle between two classes—one representing the obsolescent system of production and the other nascent new order. He also speculated on generational effects, since most of the liberal-conservative phase pairs are roughly 30 years long, roughly the length of a human generation. Tension and adaptation In structural functionalism, social change is regarded as an adaptive response to some tension within the social system. Further conflict encourages people of similar interests to unite together to achieve their objectives. He maintains that civilizations pass through three stages, corresponding to youth, maturity and decline. Thus, economic determinism does not solve the major problem of social causation.
The concept of progress, however, has become the most influential idea, especially since the movement of the 17th and 18th centuries. It is a basic assumption of science that all events have causes. Marx believed that the basic contradictions contained in a capitalist economic system would lead to class consciousness. But he holds to the position that the economic situation is the foundation of the social order and this is the gist of Marxian theory. In recent years the social change has proceeded at a very rapid rate. Indeed, materialist theories have even been developed in opposition to Marxism. He argued all mankind inevitably passed through these stages as it developed, suggesting both unilinear direction and progress.
Each theory seeks to explain the nature and reasons and scope of Social Change in a particular way. Yet because these theories are not scientifically determined, they fail to make an explicit distinction between decline and progress. In brief, linear hypothesis states that all aspects of society change continually in a certain direction, never faltering, never repeating themselves. That the direction of change is from simple to complex, from homogeneity to heterogeneity, from undifferentiated to the differentiated in form and function. The description given by Sorokin makes room for almost any possibility, deterioration, progress or cyclical change and, therefore, sociologists find little quarrel with his description. This universal human potential for social change has a biological basis.
Our understanding of it will not be complete unless we take into consideration this changeable nature of society, study how differences emerge and discover the direction of change. Therefore, the proper way to model the cycles of American history is by using a spiral, or single. Ideational Culture emphasises those things which can be perceived only by the mind. When we speak of social evolution we refer to the emergence of certain institution. Fundamental Concepts in the Study of Change. But this pluralistic theory of social change is initiated in the material culture and thence spreads to other spheres. Cyclical Theory of Recent Thinkers : The assumption that change takes place in a cyclical way has been a quite long held one.
In modern times the speed of social change is faster today than before 1947. In the first, there will be dictatorship of the proletariat during which the proletariat will rule and crush out all the remnants of capitalism. The society declines, but at the same time speculators arises from among the subjugated to become the new ruling class and overthrow the old group. According to Weber, authority is legitimated in three ways within societies: traditional, rational and charismatic. The theories proposed to be based for setting a better human society in a state and then the whole world regarding its political, economical and social system meeting all the needs of our human nature are called social theories and any thoughts suiting the theories would be social thoughts and in co … nflict of it or the culture of the society based on the theories may not be called social thoughts the person is then regarded as unsocial and its behavior as unsocial naturally.